TOPIC- Control by Sanctions
Sanctions are the supporters of norms. ‘Sanctions’ refer to “the rewards or punishments used to establish social control, that is, to enforce the norms in a society”. The basic purpose of sanction is to bring about conformity. They are used to force or persuade an individual or group to conform to social expectations.
Sanctions may be applied in various ways, ranging from the use of physical force to symbolic means, such as flattery. Negatively, they may be anything from a raised eyebrow to the death sentence. Positively, they range from a smile to an honorary degree.
Sanctions are applied in various ways. The type of sanctions also varies with the groups and situations. They may be positive or negative. Those sanctions which inflict pain or threaten to do so are negative. Those which elicit and facilitate response by rewards are positive. Both positive and negative sanctions may apply a wide variety of means.
Positive sanctions include verbal methods such as praise, flattery, suggestion, persuasion, some of education, indoctrination, advertising, propaganda, slogans, giving rewards, medals, badges, uniforms, titles, etc.
Negative sanctions means include-gossip, slander, satire, laughing at others, name-calling, threats, commands, censorship, and finally overt action. The method of overt action is the final sanction when no other way remains open.
In this method pain, suffering and even death is included. Overt action also includes fines, imprisonment, whipping, mutilation, torture, banishment, ostracism and death. Extreme negative sanctions are applied only by the state.
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