TOPIC- Social Control Meaning And Need
According to Mannheim, social control is the sum of those methods by which a society tries to influence human behavior to maintain a given order.
Any society must have harmony and order. Where there is no harmony or order the society actually does not exist because society is a harmonious organization of human relationships. Unless the individuals live up to the prescribed norms of conduct and unless their self-seeking impulses are subjugated to the welfare of the whole it would be quite difficult to maintain effectively the social organization.
Society in order to exist and progress has to exercise a certain control over its members since any marked deviation from the established ways is considered a threat to its welfare. Such control has been termed by sociologists as social control.
Social control has been defined by Maclver as the way in which entire social order coheres and maintains itself- how it operates as a whole as a changing equilibrium. To Ogburn and Nimkoff the patterns of pressure that a society exerts to maintain order and established rules is social control.
According to Gillin and Gillin social control is that system of measures, suggestions, persuasions, restraint and coercion by whatever means including physical force by which a society brings into conformity to the approved pattern of behavior or subgroup or by which a group molds into conformity its members.
Need for Social Control
Social solidarity is essential for the existence of society.No two persons is alike in their nature, ideas, attitudes and interests. Every individual is a separate personality. There are cultural differences among the individuals. As a matter of fact society is a heterogeneous organization. If every individual is allowed unrestricted freedom to act and behave, it may create social disorder.
For an orderly social life social control is necessary. The aims of social control are to bring out conformity, solidarity and continuity of a particular group or society. Social control is necessary for maintaining order in society.
It is necessary for every society or group to maintain its social order and this is possible only when its members behave in accordance with that social order. An important objective of social control is to maintain the old order. Although enforcement of the old order in a changing society may hinder social progress, yet it is necessary to maintain continuity and uniformity in society.
Without social control social unity would be a mere dream. Social control regulates behavior in accordance with established norms which brings uniformity of behavior and leads to unity among the individuals. The family maintains its unity because its members behave in a similar manner in accordance with family norms.
No two men are alike in their attitudes, ideas, interests and habits. Even the children of same parents do not have the same attitudes, habits or interests. Men believe in different religions, dress, eat differently and have different ideologies. There are so many differences in the ways of living of the people that at every moment there is the possibility of clash between them.
In modern times this possibility has all the more increased because man has become too self-centred. Social control is necessary to protect social interests and satisfy common needs. If social control is removed and every individual is left to behave freely society would be reduced to a state of lawlessness.
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