Max Weber a German Socialogist.he also known as father of bureaucracy approach of management 1910 he made a study of different types of business organization.
- Max weber belief that authority division in the organisation should not be governed by personal preferences of the employee but it should be governed by standard rule.
- There is a systematic division of work.this increases production by improving efficiency and saving time.
- Principle of hierarchy is followed each lower officer is concerned or control of higher level.
- There is a rational personal administration .people are selected on their prudential and merits are paid according to their position in the organization
Henry Fayol 14 – Principles of Management
Limitation of Bureaucratic approach
1)Rigidity : Rules and regulations in bureaucracy are often rigid and inflexible . These encourage status quo and breed resistance to change. Rigid compliance with rules and regulations discourage initiative and creativity. It may also provide the cover to avoid responsibility for failures
2)Goal displacement : Rules framed to achieve organizational objectives at each level become an end in themselves . When individuals holding office at lower level peruse personal objectives or objectives of sub-units, the overall objectives of the organization may be neglected . Once the objectives get so displaced, managers and other members of the organization find it very difficult to achieve the goals of the organization.
3) Impersonality : A bureaucratic organization stresses mechanical way of doing things . Organizational rules and regulations are given priority over individual’s needs and emotions . The office a person holds is more important than the person himself . Contractual obligations are given primacy over human relations.
4) Compartmentalization of objectives : Jobs are divided into watertight categories which restricts people from performing tasks that they are capable of performing. It also encourages preservation of jobs even when they become redundant. The sequential flow of work may contain an element of idle time at every level.
5) Paperwork : Bureaucracy involves excessive paper work as every decision must be put in writing . All documents have to be maintained in their draft and orginal forms. This leads to great wastage of time , stationery and space .6)Empire Building : people in a bureaucracy tend to use their positions and resources to perpetuate self- interests or the intersts of their sub-units . Every superior tries to increase the number of his subordinates as if this number is considered a symbol of power and prestige. It is hard to destroy bureaucracy even if it has outlived its utility.
7)Red Tape : bureaucratic procedures involve inordinate delays and frustration in the performance of tasks. The procedures are nevertheless valued , perpetuated and multiplied for their own sake as also to pass the buck.
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