Determinants Of Personality
Before discussing the DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY, it is necessary to define that WHAT
‘PERSONALITY?’ IS I have already defined it with quiet a detail in my other article. To read about Personality in detail,
It is generally known that “Personality is the outcome of continuous personal quality development process. There may be different roles played by a single personality in different situations. So the personality is best recognized, defined and analyzed in a given particular situation.
Personality is the wide term, which is the result or net effect of different circumstances and factors. There are many factors which affect personality or which determine the personality. Few among them are as follows:
- Family Background
- Social group
- Cultural Factor
Heredity is the transmission of qualities from generation to generation. This can happen due to chromosomes of the germ cell. Heredity predisposes to certain physical, mental, emotional states. It has been established through research on animals that physical and psychological factor may be transmitted through heredity. It has been concluded from various researches that heredity plays an important part in determining an individual’s personality.
It is the second biological factor that affects the personality of a person. The role of brain in personality formation is very important. If a person’s brain is sharp, he can understand the situation better and take prompt decision. This improves his personality.
3. Family Background (Members)
Parents and other family members have strong influence on the personality development of the child. Parents have more influence on the personality development of a child as compared to other members of the family.
Family influences the behaviour of a person especially in early stages. The nature of such influence will depend upon the following factors:-
- Family Size
- Birth Order
- Geographic location
- Parent’s educational level
- Socio- economic level of family
For Instance: –
The study made by Newcomb showed that there is higher co-relation between attitude of parents and children than that between the children and their teachers.
4. Social Groups
Besides a person’s home environment and family members, there are other influences arising from the social placement of the family as the person is exposed to agencies outside the home (i.e. social groups) these social groups includes school mates, friends, colleagues at work place or any other group to which an individual belongs because “A man is known by the company he keeps.” Similarly, socio-economic factors also affect personality development.
Situational factors may also play an important role in determination of human personality. Many a times, the behavior of a person is determined not by how that man is but by what the situation is in which he is places. An employee who is hard working and always gets ahead may prove lazy and trouble maker if he is put under unfavorable situation. This aspect is very important because it can be kept in control by the management.
According to Hoebel- “Culture is the sum total learned behavior trait which manifested and shared by the member of the society”
In other words “ It is a unique system of perception, belief, values, norms, pattern of behaviour of individual in a given society”
Culture is the factor which determines the decision making power of an individual. It includes independence, competition, artistic talent, and aggression, Co-operation etc.
Each culture expects that the person should behave in a way, which is accepted by the group. Personal belonging to different cultural groups has different attitudes. Every culture has their own sub-culture also.
However, a direct relationship cannot be established between personality and given culture.
7. Physical Features
The physical features of the individual also have a great impact on personality of an individual. Physical features include height, weight and such other physical aspect of an individual.
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