Human Relation Approach
While the classical approach focused on the jobs, the behavioral approach stressed the individuals performing these jobs. Prof. Elton mayo is considered to the founder of the behavioral school of thought. He conducted the famous Hawthorne experiments. These experiments revealed the overwhelming influence of social and psychological factors on employee morale and productivity. The finding had a significant impact on management thought. The jobholder became the focal point of attention in place of the job.
Classical theory concentrated on formal organization and ignores the human factor. The Neo-classical approach or human classical approach was proposed as a reaction to classical approach. They emphasis on the fact that organization is a social system and human factor is most important in it.
The behavior science approach focuses on human behavior in organization and seeks to promote verifiable propositions for scientific understanding of human behavior in organization. This approach draws heavily its concepts from psychology and sociology. Motivation, leadership, communication, group dynamics and participative science approach are as follows:
- An organization is a socio-technical system.
- A wide range of factors influences interpersonal and group behavior of people in the organization.
- There should be a fusion between organization goals and needs.
- Several differences in the attitude, perceptions and values of employees exist and influence their behavior and performance.
- Some degree of conflict may be inevitable and even desirable in organization
LIMITATION OF HUMAN RELATION APPROACH
The behavioral approach has made significant contribution to the development of management thought. It generated an awareness of the overwhelming role of human element in organizations. A manager is basically a manager of human beings and his success depends mainly on his skills in handling the human element. In this way, this approach corrects the distortions caused by purely mechanistic and technological nature of classical approach. The behavioral approach recognized the quality of leadership as a critical factor in management success. It recognizes the role of individual physiological and group behavior in organization effectiveness.
The behavioral approach is not free from limitation. First, it erase by almost identifying management with the study of social and industrial physiological. Secondly, conclusion of the behavioral approach discount theory and stress radical in empiricism. They have a clinical bias and lack scientific validity. Thirdly, the approach neglects the economic dimension of work satisfaction. The neo classical theory is said to have a short sight perspective and fails to recognize the creative role of conflict. It is group oriented and anti-individualistic.
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